Bibliography

AOYAMA. A, 1995. Fashion And Cosmetics Graphics. Tokyo: PIE Books

AUCOIN. K, 1999. Making Faces. New York: Little, Brown

Camera shots, angles and movement, lighting, cinematography and mise en scene [viewed 9 October]. Available from: www.skwirk.com/p-c_s-54_u-251_t-647_c-2411/camera-shots-angles-and-movement-lighting-cinematography-and-mise-en-scene/nsw/camera-shots-angles-and-movement-lighting-cinematography-and-mise-en-scene/skills-by-text-type-film/film-overview

DADE. P, 2007. All Made Up: 100 Years Of Cosmetics Advertising. London: Middlesex University Press

Deceptive Advertising Definition [viewed 16 October]. Available from: http://consumer.laws.com/deceptive-advertising/deceptive-advertising-definition

DELAMAR, 2009. An Introduction To Continuity For The Makeup Artist [viewed 23 November]. Available from: http://www.delamaracademy.co.uk/blog/2009/06/an-introduction-to-continuity-for-the-make-up-artist

DELAMAR. P, 2002. The Complete Make-up Artist: Working in Film, Television, and Theater. 2nd edition. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University Press

Drag Queen Diaries [viewed 5 December]. Available from: http://www.dragqueendiaries.com/dragqueenhistory.htm

EBERT. R, 1982. Blade Runner [viewed 6 November]. Available from: http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/blade-runner-1982-1

ELLIOTT. A, 2014. L’Oréal forced to admit its ‘gene boosting’ anti-aging serums don’t actually turn back the hands of time [viewed 16 October]. Available from: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2676642/LOr-al-forced-admit-gene-boosting-anti-aging-serums-dont-actually-turn-hands-time.html#ixzz3twOsAc7R

FARLEX. False Advertising [viewed 16 October]. Available from: http://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/False+Advertising

HODGSON. C, 2015. Is this proof that X Factor contestants do multiples Judges’ Houses performances? [viewed 23 November]. Available from: http://www.cosmopolitan.co.uk/entertainment/news/a39330/x-factor-louisa-johnson-fix-rumour/

KEHOE. V, 1995. The Technique of the Professional Make-up Artist. New York: Focal Press

KOMANOYA. R, 2008. Graphis Advertising 2009. Scranton, Penn: Collins Design

NICHOLS. J, 2014. ‘RuPaul’s Drag Race’ Wins Television Critics Association Award [viewed 5 December]. Avaiable from: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/21/rupauls-drag-race-television-critics_n_5607150.html

NOWNESS, 2014. Crème Caramel [viewed 11 October]. Available from: https://www.nowness.com/series/define-beauty/creme-caramel

NOWNESS, 2014. She’s Bad [viewed 11 October]. Available from: https://www.nowness.com/story/dye-shes-bad

PRETTYBIRD, 2013. Pierre Debusschere – ‘Age of Aquarius’ [viewed 28 October]. Available from: http://prettybirduk.blogspot.co.uk/2013/01/pierre-debusschere-random-act.html

ROMANOWSKI. P, 2014. The 10 Most Misleading Cosmetic Claims [viewed 16 October]. Available from: http://chemistscorner.com/the-10-most-misleading-cosmetic-claims/

SCHALLER. A, 2014. Backstage beauty: Alexander McQueen Fall/Winter 2014-2015 [viewed 18 October]. Available from: http://en.vogue.fr/beauty-tips/beauty-secrets/diaporama/backstage-beauty-alexander-mcqueen-fall-winter-2014-2015-fw2014-sarah-burton-pat-mcgrath-guido-palau-hair-make-up/14447#IVcb8LCfSsr497so.99

SHANNON. C, 2007. L’Oreal ad given the brush-off [viewed 16 October]. Available from: http://www.theguardian.com/media/2007/jul/25/advertising.asa

SHEEHAN.K, 2003, Controversies In Contemporary Advertising. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

SINGER. O, Isamaya Ffrench, Beauty Editor, i-D [viewed 24 October]. Available from: https://intothegloss.com/2014/07/isamaya-ffrench-makeup/

SOPHOCLES, GRENE. D, 2010. Oedipus the King. University Of Chicago Press

TUNGATE. M, 2011. Branded Beauty: How Marketing Changed The Way We Look. London: Kogan Page

VLC, 2012. Bloom By December]. Available from: http://www.yesandyes.org/2013/09/true-story-im-drag-queen.html

WIDDOWS. L, 1997. Image-makers: Professional Styling, Hair And Make-up. London: Batsford

ZOLDAN. R, 2015. 82 Percent Of Cosmetic Advertising Claims Are Bogus [viewed 16 October]. Available from http://www.shape.com/lifestyle/beauty-style/82-percent-cosmetic-advertising-claims-are-bogus

2012. Irony: The secret to Pixar plotting [viewed 9 December]. Available from: http://www.hypable.com/irony-the-secret-to-pixar-plotting/

[viewed 9 December]. Available from: http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~edmunds/triron.html

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500 Word Evaluation

Overall, I have actually really enjoyed this project, and I feel that I have created an effective fashion film with a strong concept. At first, I was slightly overwhelmed by the brief and all of the work ahead of me, but I learnt that if I kept on top of my work, the task was well within my reach.

The first problem I faced was developing the storytelling of my film – I knew the message that I wanted to portray was anti-advertising, but I was not quite sure how to execute my video. Fortunately, Pascal was able to put a slight spin on my original idea; whereby I look at advertisement the opposite way, and take what they say literally. This gave me plenty of new, and more interesting ideas that I could work with.

With this idea in mind, I researched real-life scenarios of false advertising to give my concept more depth and meaning. As I was researching, the problem was just as big as I imagined, if not worse. I think that this encouraged me to create a successful fashion film because it was a relevant topic, that would apply to a large audience.

My main problem that I faced was probably finding a model! Initially, I thought I had it all sorted, but then when they pulled out (2 in a row), I began to panic and stress massively; little did I know the answer was right in front of me… However, whilst trying to find a new model, I realised that this actually pushed me into doing all of the background research and practice required, and it made me very eager to start filming, so once I had my model sorted, I was ready to get filming as soon as possible.

I feel that the make-up and hair looks came to me quite effortlessly – I had my concept, so I just ran with it. I knew that I wanted it to be big, bold and over the top, but I wanted my concept to be understood. Therefore, I broke down my make-up process, by showing one look at a time, before shocking the viewers with the dramatic final look. I researched already existing looks that I could incorporate and gain inspiration from, and then came up with my own, firstly in a brief storyboard, and then translated them into face charts. The hair was a smaller part of my film, as I wanted the focus on the make-up, thus I slicked it back off of the face, and it only really came into play when I used it to complement the final look.

Another big part that I have gained a lot of knowledge about is how to shoot and edit footage. Prior to starting this project, I had never used premiere, so all of Ken’s lessons were teaching me something new. I felt that I learnt the basics here, but I learnt the most by experimenting in my own time.

My Fashion Film; The Final Cut

There was not a huge amount left to do in order to create my final film – I just had to act on the feedback that Pascal gave me, and just fine tune everything else…

So the first thing I did was act on Pascal’s feedback, he said that the Non-addictive transitions were not needed and he wanted to just be able to see more of the final make-up look. Therefore, I changed the Non-addictive transitions to the Film Dissolve transitions. The reason I chose this particular transition (rather than the Cross Dissolve transition that I have also used quite regularly throughout my film) is because whenever the final make-up look is involved I have used a more dramatic transition. The Cross Dissolve was just a transition I used when the music was quite flowy and soft and it overlapped a lot of my clips. Every time there was a glimpse of the final make-up look, whether it was blurred, or whether it was for a long/short period of time, I still used the Film Dissolve, therefore I have decided to be consistent and keep the Film Dissolve transitions wherever the final make-up look is involved, and to use the Cross Dissolve for the individual make-up looks. By making these changes, I feel that this allows my film to flow slightly better and it allows the audience to focus entirely on the make-up looks, and thus the concept of my film.

The only other alteration I made to my film was that during my last version, I could not get one of the transitions to overlap between 2 clips – it was just attached to the start of one, meaning that the merging was not as seamless as I wanted, and it made one of the highlighter make-up clips last slightly too long within the film.

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The Film Dissolve transition would not move to the centre of the 2 clips…

At first, I considered just leaving it because it was not that noticeable, but as time went on, and I re-watched my film, it began to annoy me a lot more. Therefore, I did some research on the internet, and managed to find a forum where someone else had the same problem. It was actually really easy to solve – all I had to do was look at the effect controls on the transition, and make sure that the alignment was ‘Center at Cut’, instead of ‘Start at Cut’. And there we go, problem solved!

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My final sequence in Premiere:Final premiere sequence

Overall, I am actually really pleased with my fashion film! It turned out much better than I expected, and I was able to translate the ideas from my head into an actual film. I feel that I have gained a lot of knowledge, especially with using Premiere, and I know that this is good to have an understanding of this for future reference. I am happy with the content of my film, and I feel that I have a strong concept/message within my film, which I hope viewers will find intriguing. I have also definitely learnt the importance of music and sound effects, because I feel that the music really made my film, and gave it a lot more dimension and impact. I have enjoyed this unit much more than I thought I would, and I love the fact that I have a video as an outcome, rather than just a photo. So, here it is…

Fallacy – the final version:

Designing Fashion Make-up; Marc Jacobs (Helen)

The undeniable sinister edge was mostly derived from the combination of the screeching scratching string soundtrack – uncomfortably grating – and the ugly hair and makeup; Jacobs models wore the tightest top knots and their faces were powdered pale with sunken shadowed eyes and lips painted in the deepest darkest plum – it was haunting – and quite shocking to the eye.” – Sarah Harris

From the text I picked up on these key factors:

  • Ugly hair and make-up
  • Tight top knots
  • Powdered pale faces
  • Sunken shadowed eyes
  • Deep, dark plum lips

Therefore, taking these key features into account, I came up with this look:

To create this look, I mixed the Illamasqua skin base with my normal foundation colour to create a paler skin tone, and I then powdered this using the translucent powder to create the ‘powdered pale faces’; I also purposely allowed powder to fall onto the eyebrows to enhance this idea. I then used a grey colour to contour the face, e.g. the cheeks, forehead and nose, to keep in line with the ‘sunken shadowed’ feel.

I used a grey tone eyeshadow to hollow out the eye area, to create ‘sunken shadowed eyes’ and then incorporated a plum colour into the crease, to go with the lips. I also applied these colours under the eye to bring it all together. I added eyeliner to the top of the eye, and mascara to the top and bottom lashes.

Finally, I added a matte deep, dark plum colour the the lips. I think the whole make-up did look quite ugly and sinister, as described in the passage…

Afterwards, I then went on to research what the actual make-up was like in the fashion show…

I was surprised to see both the similarities and differences between the 2 different looks. I think it is interesting that, even when given the exact same passage of text, we are able to produce such different ideas and outcomes. For example, I incorporated the plum colour into the eyeshadow, whereas they used a more grey-tone and used plum on the lips only. I also thought that the face would’ve been slightly more sculpted and contoured than it actually is, but they created this in a different way, e.g. using straight eyebrows.

Tech File – Hair On Camera; Structure And Movement

Tools/equipment needed:

  • Paddlebrush
  • Pintail Comb
  • Sectioning clips
  • Hairspray
  • Hairband
  • Hair grips
  1. Section the hair in a V from the front of the head towards the crown and pin this out the way.IMG_9461
  2. Gather the rest of the hair into a tight pony tail midway up the head – make sure this is neat and sleek.IMG_9463
  3. Starting at the back of the V section, backcomb it layer by layer.
  4. When this is sufficiently  built up, comb the hair together and backwards, so that it is smooth and comes towards the pony tail.
  5. Twist this hair once and pin it in place.
  6. Once it is pinned, wrap this hair around the pony tail to hide the existing band.IMG_9479
  7. Pin the ends in place.
  8. Run over the hair with a comb sprayed with hair spray to flatten down fly aways.

As I was creating this style on my dolls head, I struggled to keep the fly away hairs to a minimum because the hair does not act as natural hair, but I tried my best. Also, the hair is quite short, which meant some of the hair was harder to keep in place, for example, some of it was not long enough to reach the ponytail.

I think my backcombing was good because I was able to create a lot of volume, and it stayed in place without using any hairspray or hair products. Therefore, I think it made the quiff part quite successful, and it was quite even on both sides.

I also managed to cover all of the hairband with hair, and none of the grips were visible, which is good. The only thing I would have liked to improve is for the hair to be slightly sleeker and for the ponytail to be tighter.

Overall, I like this hairstyle as a fairly natural everyday style, and it is not too complicated to do, so would be good to use on TV and in films, for example, to maintain continuity.

Tech File – Natural Make-up For TV And Film

Products/equipment needed:IMG_9451(and a puff & eyebrow brush)

1. Cleanse and tone skin to clean and add moisture.
2. Apply a moisturising primer and massage it into the skin with fingers.
3. Warm up some concealer on the back of your hand and apply it under the eye, patting it gently with fingers. (Don’t swipe as will pull on delicate skin and irritate), and to any blemishes.
4. Colour match the foundation on the model, don’t change the colour of the skin for this natural look.
5. (If needed) mix the foundation with an illuminator/moisturiser to make it less heavy.
6. Apply the foundation with your fingers to warm up the product and place it where needed. Buff this in using Bobbi Brown full coverage brush.
7. Blend the concealer in with the foundation and add it to the eyelid to even out skin tone.
8. Using a puff, apply translucent powder to the areas where you do not want it to be shiny/oily.
9. Apply some lip balm on the lips to prep them for the lip stick.
10. Brush eye brows through and add a tiny bit of colour if there are sparse areas.
11. Brush through the eyelashes to remove any product.
12. Use a shimmery or matte skin colour on the eyelid.
13. Use a brown eye shadow and press it into the lash line for subtle definition.
14. Apply a light coat of mascara to top and bottom lashes.
15. Ask model to smile and lightly add some blush to the apples of the cheeks.
16. Add a very natural lip colour.

I was actually really happy with how my natural make-up turned out – I think it looked nice and soft and fresh-faced, and it allowed the skin to really come through and be seen despite there being foundation applied. I used the Bobbi Brown Longwear-even finish foundation, because (I used to work for Bobbi Brown) I know that they aim to promote a natural healthy look, and that their foundations are not too heavy, thus only produce light to medium coverage.

The colours of the foundation, concealer and lipstick are well matched and blended. I liked using my fingers to apply the products because it gave a natural, soft finish, which is perfect for this look, and I think sometimes, using our fingers as tools are often forgotten about. I feel that the blusher gives a healthy bit of colour to the face, and that is not too much or too overpowering.

The only thing I perhaps would’ve changed is the amount of mascara on the bottom eyelashes – for these particular eyelashes (that are quite long for bottom lashes) I think that the mascara appears slightly too heavy. However, on someone with shorter lashes, it would look a lot more natural.

Overall, I quite enjoyed creating this look, as it is quite different to a lot of the extremely heavy make-up looks I have been creating in this unit. Therefore, it was nice to have a change and create the total opposite, and I like the outcome because of how fresh faced and natural it looks.

Origins Of Irony

According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the term irony has its roots in the Greek comic character Eiron, a clever underdog who by his wit repeatedly triumphs over the boastful character Alazon. The Socratic irony of the Platonic dialogues derives from this comic origin.

According to Richard Whately: “Aristotle mentions Eironeia, which in his time was commonly employed to signify, not according to the modern use of ‘Irony, saying the contrary to what is meant’, but, what later writers usually express by Litotes, i.e. ‘saying less than is meant’.”

The word came into English as a figure of speech in the 16th century as similar to the French ironie. It derives from the Latin ironia and ultimately from the Greek εἰρωνεία eirōneía, meaning dissimulation, ignorance purposely affected.
Oedipus-Rex-SophoclesSophocles’ Oedipus the King contains perhaps more tragic irony than any other Greek tragedy. For example, in the First Episode, after Oedipus refers to his personal motives, as distinguished from his “official” ones, for tracking down the killer of Laius, he says: “Such ties swear me to his (Laius’) side as if he were my father” (Roche, p. 223). Of course Laius is in fact his father, as the audience knows. What is “as if” to Oedipus is reality to the audience.

Oedipus the King contains so many examples of tragic irony for the obvious reason that the protagonist does not know his true identity until late in the play and therefore does not know that he himself is the one whom he is looking for. His authority and security are illusory and soon to crumble. A split opens up, in the audience’s perspective, between reality, on the one hand, and Oedipus’ statements and actions, on the other. This protracted illusion is a larger irony that can be called “dramatic irony.”

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The phenomenon of unintentional irony, as in “as if he were my father,” is in Greek tragedy the product of a situation of which the protagonist is both unaware and also innocent, in the sense that he or she is not (at least not entirely) responsible for it. Tragic irony therefore leads back to dramatic irony, which leads back to the causes, usually complex, that create the situations of tragedy.

The New Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics distinguishes between the following types of irony:

  • Classical irony: Referring to the origins of irony in Ancient Greek comedy, and the way classical and medieval rhetoricians delineated the term.
  • Romantic irony: A self-aware and self-critical form of fiction.
  • Cosmic irony: A contrast between the absolute and the relative, the general and the individual, which Hegel expressed by the phrase, “general [irony] of the world.”
  • Verbal irony: A contradiction between a statement’s stated and intended meaning
  • Situational irony: The disparity of intention and result; when the result of an action is contrary to the desired or expected effect.
  • Dramatic irony and tragic irony: A disparity of awareness between actor and observer: when words and actions possess significance that the listener or audience understands, but the speaker or character does not; for example when a character says to another “I’ll see you tomorrow!” when the audience (but not the character) knows that the character will die before morning. It is most often used when the author causes a character to speak or act erroneously, out of ignorance of some portion of the truth of which the audience is aware. In tragic irony, the audience knows the character is making a mistake, even as the character is making it.

Book reference: Sophocles, Grene D., 2010. Oedipus the King. University Of Chicago Press

Web reference: http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~edmunds/triron.html

 

Irony Within Films

Irony definitions:

  1. the expression of one’s meaning by using language that normally signifies the opposite, typically for humorous or emphatic effect.
  2. a state of affairs or an event that seems deliberately contrary to what one expects and is often wryly amusing as a result.
  3. a literary technique, originally used in Greek tragedy, by which the full significance of a character’s words or actions is clear to the audience or reader although unknown to the character.
  4. Irony in speaking is a matter of saying one thing and meaning something else.

I feel that my film is ironic for a few reasons; the message and concept of my film is quite serious, however, I think I have carried this out in quite a comical and humorous way. Also, in some scenes in my film, you see my model covered in totally ridiculous make-up, but yet her movement and facial actions remain fairly professional and serious. It is like the audience knows something that she doesn’t (how she looks!).

Examples of irony in films:

The Hunger Games

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In the first movie Katniss kisses Peeta to play up the romance for the Capital audience, but we as the audience know she feels at most conflicted towards him. The dramatic irony also plays into the larger narrative irony of the story in which the denizens of the Capital care about a love story that the audience knows is just a ploy by Katniss/her handlers while ignoring the horror of the fact that children are being sacrificed for their amusement and to maintain social control. This also plays into the meta-irony which is that many of the film’s viewers seem to also care more about the love triangle than the horror of the society depicted.

Mean Girls

mean-girls.jpg

Cady Heron (Lindsey Lohan) originally pretends to the Plastics, that she wants to be friends with them (as planned with Janice), but the Plastics do not know this. Also, Cady gives weight-gain bars to the mean girl Regina, pretending they’re low calorie, causing Regina to gain weight and lose prestige.

Monsters Inc.

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Monster’s Inc. is a corporation run by monsters, the local trade being the scaring of children (“We scare because we care!”), their emotions a source of fuel. Of course, there’s obvious irony in the fact that monsters are scared of children in the story (used heavily throughout). Also, the fact that the business is run by monsters, considered reckless, violent creatures of the imagination, and actually being organized enough to have created a civilized system and government is irony in its own right.

Finding Nemo

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Finding Nemo executes its irony in its characterization. There’s the unfunny clownfish, the carnivorous shark support group, and to some extent, the pelican being friends with the fish.

Ratatouille

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The irony in the Brad Bird directed Ratatouille is evident. Rats, considered the vilest and most disgusting of all animals, in a kitchen, where they are the most despised and unwelcome. Make that restaurant one in Paris, the food capital of the world, and well…that’s a bit self-explanatory. The message of this film is, “Anyone can cook,” which, underlying, is: “Anyone can be a great artist.” That artist is found in the rat, the thing you’d least expect to become a chef. Therein, Pixar executes its message through irony, combining story tact and profundity all at once.

Web references: http://ask.metafilter.com/278744/Dramatic-irony-in-movies-and-TV-shows-currently-popular-with-teens

http://www.hypable.com/irony-the-secret-to-pixar-plotting/

 

 

Creating GIFs from my film

Screen Shot 2015-12-09 at 14.37.07

I created my GIFs using an app that I downloaded for my Mac called PicGIF Lite – it was really easy to use. I uploaded different sections of my video, which it then broke down into separate frames. I then chose which frames I wanted in my GIF, chose the speed, and there we go!

This GIF shows a quick overview of all of the different individual looks.GIF6These GIFs show my model posing quite a lot, with the full face of makeup. It is quite ironic because the make-up is so comical, but she is remaining very professional and serious.GIF 1

GIF 2

I really liked the dramatic hair flip in the film, so I wanted to capture this and make it into a GIF.GIF3

Although, I have decided to get rid of this scene in my film, I still really liked the effect, and thus wanted to create a GIF to show that I experimented with it.GIF4

The September Issue

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The September Issue” is a documentary about the Vogue’s September 2007 issue, which set a record at well over 800 pages. Vogue is ruled by the famous Anna Wintour, who is said to be the single most important person in the world of fashion. When she says “yes” it happens. When she says “no” it doesn’t. She says “no” frequently. She rarely deigns to explain why, but it would appear that most people believe she is right. She is always right about her own opinion, and in fashion, hers is one of the opinions that matters most.

The documentarian R.J. Cutler followed Wintour for months during the preparation for September 2007, which was expected to set a record. There cannot have been a page she wasn’t involved with. This seems to be a woman who is concerned with one thing above all: The implementation of her opinion. She is not the monster depicted by Meryl Streep in “The Devil Wears Prada” (2006).

Perhaps it was “The Devil Wears Prada,” based on a novel by one of her former assistants, that motivated Wintour to authorize this documentary. She doesn’t otherwise seem like the kind of woman who craves attention, since, after all, she is the focus of the eyes of everyone who matters to her. She doesn’t throw handbags at her assistants as Streep does in the 2006 movie, but then she knows too much about cameras to make that mistake.

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What comes across is that she is, after all, a very good editor. She knows exactly what she wants, and her readers agree with her. When she cringes at the sight of a dress, we’re inclined to cringe along with her. The question arises: What possible meaning is there in haute couture for the vast majority of humans who have ever lived? None, of course. And few of these costumes must actually ever be worn, and then often for photo opportunities like Cannes or the Oscars or charity balls in Palm Beach. A woman cannot live in them. She can only wear them.

Yet there is a very great deal of money involved, because these inconceivably expensive dresses serve as the show cars of designers whose ideas are then taken down market at great speed by multinational corporations, as was shown happening to Valentino in the 2009 documentary about him. Today Paris, tomorrow Bloomingdale’s.

Wintour rules Vogue with a regal confidence. No one dares to disagree with her, except for a Julia Childian former British model named Grace Coddington, who has been on the staff as long as Wintour and is as earthy as Wintour is aloof. The two women have a grudging respect for each other, perhaps because each realizes they need someone to push back. Coddington’s gift is conceiving many of Vogue’s wildly fantastical photo spreads. Wintour’s gift is knowing how to moderate her enthusiasm.

The-September-Issue-001

We meet other members of her staff, including the court jester, Andre Leon Talley, the editor at large, who specializes in spotting young talent. He’s very funny, but I didn’t see Wintour smiling at him or very much of anyone else. I think she’d look pretty when she did. Old photographs show she has worn the same hairstyle since time immemorial, perhaps because to change it would be a fatal admission that she cares what people think. In public, she always wears the same dark glasses, which provide maximum concealment; “armor,” she calls it.

The reason I chose to look at this film, was not necessarily for the make-up, but was to give me an insight into the fashion industry itself. I always find things like this very interesting because I like seeing things that happen in other people’s lives, and comparing to how it is different to my own. Clearly Wintour believes in her own views and opinions very strongly, and thus she does not really need any assurance, however, this is not always the case with other people… For example, because of people in the fashion industry, the media covers fashion events, and then goes on to apply pressure through advertising, which leads people to think negatively of themselves. Thus pushing us to go out and buy all of these products, which realistically, we do not necessarily need.

Web references:http://www.rogerebert.com/reviews/the-september-issue-2009